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Mediation On-Line

A Newsletter from ADR Resources
Volume 4, No. 10. (August 2001)
From: (Ethesis)


Stephen R. Marsh Picture


My essay on finding a home for a dispute resolution program is now on-line at  You will note that except for a very narrow area, most dispute resolution professionals, and many mediators, are not attorneys.

My wife's surgery went well.  I am very gratefull that she is now at home recovering.  My apologies if this issue is late or a little lighter than normal.

From Professor Michael J. O'Hara, J.D., Ph.D., Finance, Banking, & Law Department, College of Business Administration, Roskens Hall 502, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha NE 68182, (402) 554 - 2823 voice I recieved permission to post a copy of an essay about ADR and Business Schools at -- an interesting position paper. is now complete with feedback and comments.  I've actually blended three essays in one. The first is a typology approach for mediation, the second is an explanation of how court-annexed mediation tends to develop.  The third is a list of processes that are important in court annexed mediation (and that are not necessarily the best or appropriate in other venues).

The Recommended Book of the Month:

I am recommending Managing Public Disputes by Susan L. Carpenter and W. J. D. Kennedy. This is a book that every professional ought to read who is resolving disputes beyond court annexed cases.  I admit I was distressed to discover that the most common method of environmental and public policy dispute resolution consists of shuttle negotiation (pure process mediation).  Managing Public Disputes gives you much, much more.

Interesting new Mediation & ADR (and other) web sites

Educational Programs / News and Book Reviews/Books/Periodicals

The Mediation Council of Illinois, Phone: 312-341-6000, Fax: 847-462-0385, Email: is having their fall conference on Saturday, September 8, 2001, at the Trustmark, 400 Field Drive, Lake Forest, Illinois 60045

Conflict Transmutation Workshop 10 - 6 pm, Sunday , August 11, SIS Lounge, SIS Building, American University, 4400 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington DC, For campus directions visit: Cost: By Donation.


Mosten Mediation Centers now has a GSA contract and a joint venture with for national telephone mediation--they very much need more mediators throughout the country as well as trainers--particularly in workplace. Contact them at their website, or 818-380-0456.

Researcher Sought for Evaluation Study of Community Mediation

The National Association for Community Mediation (NAFCM) has received funding from the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation to design an evaluation of community mediation. We are seeking a researcher with knowledge of conflict resolution and experience in evaluation research to assist us. In consultation with NAFCM Board and staff, the researcher will prepare a comprehensive literature review of research evaluating the effectiveness of mediation, in general, and community mediation, in particular. The researcher will attend a two-day design meeting with a panel of experts in evaluation and community mediation, and will write a research proposal based on recommendations developed during the design meeting. The research proposal will be submitted in November. We estimate that this project will require approximately 20 days of work.

To apply, please send your resume or curriculum vita, two samples of your writing and/or research, and compensation requirements to Linda Baron, NAFCM, 1527 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 or fax to: 202 667 8629 or e-mail to As the dates for the design team meeting have not been set, please indicate your availability to attend a two-day meeting in Washington, DC on September 8-9, 22-23 or 29-30.

Current Issues

CRInfo has just released its Call for Proposals for a Mini-Grant Program. It can be found at:

Submissions to

As always, I am interested in any submissions or articles anyone would like to have posted on the web -- and I am glad to be able to point them out in this newsletter.  I prefer to post material as you have written it, with no editorial changes by myself.  I should also note that I am changing my service provider, so that is the best e-mail address to use to reach me.

With my best regards, I remain,

Sincerely yours,

Stephen Marsh
Additional material is included in the on-line version.
If you are curious where the term/name Ethesis comes
from, visit

Back issues at

If for some reason you wish to be removed from my periodical mailings please let me know. If I'm sending anyone extra copies or sending it to anyone who shouldn't be getting it, please let me know. This e-mail mailing list is supposed to be limited only people who would be interested and who have subscribed.  Thanks for your patience and help.

Post Script (the "extra" material for the on-line version).


Subj: articles

Date: 6/3/01 1:28:31 PM Central Daylight Time

From: (aphekdr)

To: (


<FontFamily><param>Times New Roman</param><bigger>1

<FontFamily><param>Arial</param><smaller> Hi Stephan,

I am a subscriber of your newsletter. I thought you might find the enclosed articles , interesting.

( I might have sent one of them, already) If I have, please excuse.

Best wishes


<bigger> <FontFamily><param>Times New Roman</param>Prof. Edna Aphek, 42 Hatayassim St.

Jerusalem, Israel

<underline>Kamrat : the Story of a Virtual Multicultural Learning Community in Israel

</underline>Israel is a multicultural country, a country made up of different  ethnic groups : many having their own culture, language and even religion.

There isn’t much contact between some of the groups, especially between the secular Jews and the ultra orthodox Jews and between the Jewish population and the Arab population which comprises about 1/6th of Israel’s population.

The new technologies and especially the technology of on- line computer telecommunication endow us with new tools and possibilities for on- going multi- cultural and multi- age communication between different ethnical groups.

The new technologies know no stigma and no prejudice and as such easify and make possible neutral, less biased communication between groups, which are much apart.

This paper is about the creation of an on- going learning community <italic>Kamrat</italic>, a multicultural on- line learning community, between two schools, in Israel, in 2000:  one Israeli Arab school (A) and the other Israeli Jewish school


The tools used for the creation of this community were two: a closed network in Hebrew and the internet. Participants were learners in 7-9 grade.

The project was conducted between Jan- May 2000 (with one introductory meeting in November 1999)

The communities participating in the project, master two different languages: the language of the Jewish Israeli community is Hebrew, where as the language of the Arab community is Arabic.

The project was conducted in the Hebrew language, and the Arab learners were encouraged to write some of the material uploaded in Arabic in Hebrew letters.

Though both Arabic and Hebrew are Semitic languages, each has its own set of characters.

<underline>The Vision

</underline>The Kamrat project is my brainchild, it was carried out by Ithamar Aphek, (my son) from the TelHi Networks in collaboration with Ulpan Akiva, an institute famous for its struggle for coexistence.

When I first out lined the Kamrat project, my vision was to have people from different backgrounds conduct an on-going dialog and to learn that people are people, no matter where they come from, and what language they use or religion they hold.

It was as simple as that. I wanted to avoid the political issue, which is very intensive and stormy in Israel, and therefore, I was looking for <bold>neutral</bold> content, to be researched ,collected and uploaded by all the participants in the Kamrat project.

<bold><italic>The Kamrat project centered around, “simple”, “little”, ordinary human themes, objects , items, proverbs and sayings passed from parents to children in their families and common in each of the participating community.

<underline></italic>A. The Process</underline></bold>

<underline>Starting the project </underline>The first step was to choose two schools to participate in the project.

We didn’t have too many to choose from as schools in Israel and I guess in other countries as well, are over burdened with projects. Starting an additional project was met with some reluctance on the part of the teachers.

Finally two schools chose to participate in the Kamrat experiment: Mushreife an Arab ( A)Israeli village in the east of Israel and Ort Gutman, Jewish (J) Israeli in Natanya, a city in center Israel about 100 km from Mushreife.

<underline>A preparatory meeting of headmasters, teachers, supervisors and project directors

</underline>Though the Kamrat project is essentially about on-line co- learning, there were several meetings in person as well.; a preparatory meeting in order for coordinators and headmasters to get deeply involved in the program and to get acquainted with its principles, bi- monthly meetings in the schools, each week in another school, run by Ithamar and Salah, and a final meeting for all the participating members in Ulpan Akiva.

<underline>A word about the closed network

</underline>We decided to use two different communication tools, both computer based.

The first for rudimentary gathering of information and for on- going dialog between the participants, and the second, once all the material has been collected – the internet.

The first tool, was a closed network in Hebrew, run by TelHi Networks, using the FirstClass software outdated 2.6 version.

<paraindent><param>right</param>Unfortunately there are no good intranets in Hebrew and though the SoftArc Firstclass software in Hebrew doesn’t contain many much-desired features it still is, quite a good “intranet” in Hebrew.</paraindent>

<paraindent><param>right</param>All participants were connected to the aforementioned “intranet” from school and those who had an internet connection at home could also access the Hebrew network from home. </paraindent>

<paraindent><param>right</param>All the work done by the participants, including on going interactions, was recorded on the TelHi closed intranet. </paraindent>

<underline>Deciding upon forums

</underline>As I have already mentioned, my vision was that of getting people to know other people as human beings, having much in common.

We shunned away from any political issues, and resorted to what one could term as “community informatics” .

We, myself and Ithamar, who later on together with Salah from Ulpan Akiva, ran the project, decided on five forums on which the entire Kamrat program was to focus: symbols and costumes, objects passed from parents to children, folktales, sayings and proverbs, and feasts and quizzes about famous people in the history of the participating groups.

In both participating schools a teacher was assigned to head the project and to work with the multiage, ungraded group on finding and uploading information regarding the aforementioned five areas to the intranet.

<italic>It was this intranet, where the two very much apart segments of Israeli society met almost on a daily basis.

</italic> In addition to the above forums a designated forum for the coordinators and the group leaders in each school was opened. In this forum the entire process of the creation and formation of Kamrat, was recorded, by Ithamar from the TelHi Networks, and Salah from Ulpan Akiva.

<underline>Work inside the schools

</underline>As mentioned above in each of the participating schools a group of 25 students from 7-9 was chosen to take part in the project. Participating learners were divided into groups of 5. Each group was responsible for one forum.

Members of the group worked using the tools of cooperative learning.

The students met with their teacher once a week for two hours.

Every other week they also met with Ithamar and Salah.

The meeting between the two groups, the Arab Israeli group and the Jewish Israeli group, was until May, only a virtual one, via the closed network. <italic>

<underline></italic>On-going work Jan- May 2000

</underline>The students in each of the participating schools, met once a week for a few hours with the coordinating teacher.

They conducted research, read books, interviewed their family members, and uploaded the material gathered as well as their reflections, to the closed intranet.

Every other week, either Ithamar or Salah met with the learners and their teachers.

In addition, frequent meetings were conducted on-line.

Immediately after the first meeting in each of the schools the youngsters opened a forum where they told the other participating party about themselves, their village or city and their schools.

<underline>Meeting in person, Natanya 3rd May, 2000

</underline>Students both in Ort Gutman and at the school in Mushreife were working very hard. They were collecting sayings, translating folktales, writing quizzes and teaching each other VIRTUALLY about objects dear to their families, customs and costumes. They kept meeting on line , synchronously and asynchronously, but they have never met in person.

Now that the project was nearing its end, a meeting , a “real one” was scheduled in

Ulpan Akiva.

The students both the Arab-israelis and the Jewish-Israeli, were very excited.<bold>

<underline></bold><color><param>FF00,0000,0000</param> a few words about the meeting itself:

</underline>The meeting itself was composed of several parts. The official part where speeches were made, and the less formal, though meticulously planned part, where traditional costumes ,foods and music , both Arabic and Jewish were presented.

<underline><color><param>0100,0100,0100</param>After the May 3rd meeting

</underline>Immediately after the meeting in Ulpan Akiva, the participants accessed the TelHi net and wrote their impressions of the face to face meeting.

M. from Mushreife ( A) says:

<italic>A beautiful, great meeting. I have a new friend, Nadav.

</italic>A.from Ort ( J) wrote the following:

<italic>Shalom, I had a great time at the meeting. I enjoyed greatly talking to you and especially with you, Suzan. I hope we’ll have many more meetings like this one, and lets please keep in touch.

</italic>Sh. from Ort ( J) had the following to say :

<italic> I had a great time. It was KEIF ( an Arabic word used in Hebrew too, meaning fun) meeting everybody in person ! The food was very good, especially the baklawa (very sweet pastry ) and the pita with zaatar ( Arab bread with herbs). The music was good and it was fun dressing differently.

</italic>These impressions are echoed by S. from Mushreife ( A)

<italic>It was a great meeting. I made new good friends ( girls). I hope we’ll have more meetings like this one.

Inshalla ( Arabic for “if god will…” )

</italic>These are but a few of the many comments and impressions the children had after the meeting in person.

For a few months, they had been meeting each other on- line. Learning from each other about their city, village, customs and costumes, families and feasts.

Now the virtual faces became real and the foods came down from cyberspace to be tasted by hungry youngsters.

These teenagers, united by love of music, sports, and curious about meeting new boys and girls, found many things in common.

It was a meeting well planned for months, by all the participating youngsters, and as such it was very successful.<bold><underline>

B.Sample material of work done on-line by participating members in the Kamrat project </underline></bold>( gleaned from the Telhi Hebrew intranet)

<underline>Objects passing in the family- handed from grandparents and parents to their children

</underline>Sa.from Mushreife ( A)told the members of Kamrat about the <italic>kandil -</italic>an oil and <italic>kerosene</italic> lamp, much cherished in his family.

<italic>In the past, </italic>he told the virtual community participants<italic> , there was no electricity, like today and at nights one would use the kandil.

The kandil was made of iron and glass, and in order to lit it, oil and later on, kerosene was used.

The Arab person would walk everywhere at night, holding the kandil in his hand.


What a lesson in history! No teacher, no textbook, but children, members of the same virtual community, teaching each other.

<underline>Quizzes: testing each other’s knowledge

</underline>G. from Ort Gutman ( J) quizzed the other members about a city in Israel:

<italic>This city is holy for the Jews as well as for other people and religions.

The city is made up of 4 quarters. The city survived many wars and it serves a symbol of peace.

A wall surrounded the city; part of this wall still exists and serves as a wall for praying.

Which city is it?

</italic>The answer ofcourse, is Jerusalem.

Children are children, they are supposed to write only quizzes and questions having to do with their cultural background, but the net is a meeting place, and what is more normal for young adults than quizzing each other about football?

A. from Mushreife ( A) asks:

<italic>Which country won the world cup in 1986?

</italic>And G. from Ort (J) suggests that it was Brazil.

A. says<italic>: ah… ah.. Guy- wrong answer it was Argentine who won the world cup in 1986.

<underline></italic>Proverbs and sayings:

</underline>Ten students, five from Mushreife and five from Ort were responsible for the proverbs and sayings section. Here are some of the sayings the students uploaded to the forum.

The proverbs and sayings were written by the Mushreife group in Arabic but in Hebrew letters, and were translated into Hebrew. The students also looked for a parallel proverb or saying in Hebrew.

M.from Mushreife ( A) volunteered the following saying:

<italic>“Man g’ad va’g'ad va’man zara hasad</italic> “Hebrew equivalent “ he who works on the eve of Sabbath will eat on Sabbath “ meaning that he who works hard and plans for the future will harvest later on.

N. from Ort ( J) wrote the following saying in Hebrew: <italic>ma shesanui aleixa al taase lexaverxa </italic> and then N. translated it into simpler-daily Hebrew: “ don’t do unto your neighbor what upsets you “

C<underline>.Summary and discussion

</underline>From the data we collected we learnt that all participants, teachers, directors and students devoted much thorough work to the Kamrat project.

All participants, both Arab Israelis and Jews expressed great satisfaction at the project. They all asked for the project to continue.

The following are some comments to be made and conclusions to be drawn and implemented in future multi- cultural projects:

<underline>I.The academic aspect of the project</underline>. Much learning went on in this project.

The participating students learnt a great deal about their own culture, and a great deal about the culture of the other. There were no tests, no ordinary homework, yet learners worked very hard. They conducted research, consulted with their family members and to a lesser degree read written material and rearched the internet.. Yet it was very different from traditional class work ; the focus was on getting information from living people and getting the entire family involved in the research conducted.

<underline>II.The success of the project</underline> stems from several causes:

<paraindent><param>out</param>? The hard work put into the project by all the participants and especially by Ithamar and Salah who drove every week hundred of miles in order to meet with the students and the coordinating teachers and headmasters.</paraindent>

<paraindent><param>out</param>? The use of a closed Hebrew networks in addition to a final product an internet home page. </paraindent>

<paraindent><param>out</param>? The frequent recording of all the stages of the process and reflections of students as well as teachers and project directors.</paraindent>

<paraindent><param>out</param>? The variety of tasks</paraindent>

<paraindent><param>out</param>? Working in groups according to the method of

cooperative learning</paraindent>

<paraindent><param>out</param>? The approach , of which I am a great believer, maintaining that a successful project should start on a small scale, learnt from and only then implemented on a larger scale.</paraindent>

<underline>III. Getting to know the other</underline> can be done in many ways.

The way we chose in this project was to use quizzes, proverbs and folktales, as well as what I would term our highlight- objects passed from parents to children in the family.

This method is indirect, varied, gives room for every body and mostly strengthens one’s cultural identity. Its this strengthening of one’s ethnical, cultural identity that made this project work; participants in the project felt they were accepted as who and what they are and no side in the community had a “better “ culture.

Cultures weren’t measured, no evaluation, no value judgement was going on; it was learning to know each other as human beings, with many stories, cherished objects and customs.

Intentionally, we didn’t start the multicultural learning community with a face to face, in person meeting.It started somewhere out there, in the cyberspace where no prejudice and hostility reign .It went on in the Meta-land of Israel without strife, where Jews and Arabs can meet as equals and find a common language.

When the two groups finally met, they already had that common language enhancing a reality of equality.

<underline><FontFamily><param>Arial</param><bigger>2.<FontFamily><param>Times New Roman</param><bigger>

Transformations: “And they’ll beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruninghooks”…

</underline>Prof.Edna Aphek, Jerusalem, Israel

The following short piece describes one school’s

activity on Memorial Day in Israel, April 25th, <FontFamily><param>Times New Roman (Hebrew)</param>þ2001<FontFamily><param>Times New Roman</param>


</underline>As I am writing this description of an activity for Yom Hazikaron (Memorial Day) conducted at the Alon elementary School in Mate Yehuda, in April 2001, car bombs are exploding in Jerusalem.

Against the background of bloodshed and acts of violence, the activity at the Alon school, an activity which I believe is quite common in other Israeli schools as well, is of great importance as it sets a tone of hope, in this part of the world torn by hate, fear, despair and disbelief.

Life and death are tightly intertwined in Israel.

Memorial Day for those who died in the wars and acts of terror is only one day before Yom Haatzmaut, Israel Independence Day.

It’s this constant movement between grief and sorrow and happiness and hope, that I would dare say characterizes much of our Israeli identity.

This year, 2001, the sorrow and the grief had an additional dimension, that of the <italic>Intifada,</italic> and the many gruesome terrorist acts that have become almost daily events in Israel.

What is an Israeli school’s mission at such a time?

What activities should be conducted to commemorate the lives given to one’s country?

Two homeroom teachers,(4 grade) Adi and Etti, at the Alon elementary school, chose the following activity as most appropriate.

<underline>The activity

</underline>4th grade children , about 50 learners, were asked to think about possible ways of converting tools of war into instruments and devices to be used during times of peace.

The children used drawing paper and crayons.

It was a very simple activity, but much thinking and lots of hope went into it.

Adi introduced the children into the activity.

<underline>Adi’s words of introduction

<italic></underline>We are right now in the midst of a very difficult situation from a security point of view . Both we and the Palestinians are suffering.

At this time of enormous tension, when the right and the left are driven further apart in our country, we Etti and I wanted especially today, Yom HaZikaron ( Memorial Day) for our soldiers who died for our country, to talk with you about peace.

Peace has always been a dream of the Jewish people. Even in Biblical times, in the days of Isaiah.

Isaiah was a very important prophet. He prophesized in Jerusalem and said that a day will come when peace will reign. And when there will be peace there won’t be any need for weapons, for tools of fighting. All the war machinery and tools will be converted into plowshares. Do you know what plowshares are?

</italic>(the children answered Adi’s question).

<italic>In the book of Isaiah Ch. II verse 4 Isaiah says: “

And they’ll beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruninghooks : nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more.”

</italic>[Adi and Eti explained the meaning of the verse to the children. Once the verse was explained and understood, Adi went on with her introductory words]

<italic>I would like to tell you a story I heard recently.

This is a true story.

Are you familiar with S.?

S. is the name of a factory that used to make weapons. Used to because now adays S. manufactures pots and pans. The directors of the factory decided to use their knowledge in making weapons for the benefit of the kitchen and started making kitchen utensils using the same technology.

So what are we going to do here, today?

Soon you’ll divide into groups and you’ll think about what could be done with war tools in times of peace? What could we transform them into?

<underline></italic>And the children started working.

</underline>Cooperative learning is a key method of instruction and learning at the Alon School, <italic>as</italic> is dialoging in small groups.

The children immediately divided into groups.

They had big drawing blocks in front of them and crayons.

A lot of dialoging and thinking went on.

Their creativity knew no limits.

A war aircraft became a “Dove of Peace” flying from one country to another ushering a new era.

Tanks, armored vehicles and planes became a huge amusement park, where a merry-go-round was made of former fighter bombers and the armored vehicles cheerfully painted, were part of the amusement cars driven by visitors for fun.

Some suggested welding<italic> </italic> the iron to remake out of this strong material jewelry: earrings, chains, pins


Others envisioned rifles containing much desired candies of different tastes and colors.

The bitter taste of war transformed into the sweet taste of candy and chocolate bars.

<underline>Summary and discussion

</underline>At these very difficult times there is some danger of being carried away by the terrible events into a militaristic or pessimistic mood. The role of the educator leading children to the future as well as imparting knowledge of the past, becomes most important. Educators everywhere ,but especially in countries at war, are the agents of values and hope no less than they are masters and teachers of subject matter.

Which method should they use at such times? What values should they impart?

Adi and Etti, two 4th grade teachers suggest to us that creative thinking is a key element at such times.

Creative thinking helps us break away from fixed patterns, offers new options and assists us to transform situations and objects.

Transformation is most needed here: transforming the “culture” of hate and fear into a new culture of hope and peace.

<underline>Building on deeply rooted ideas

</underline>The idea of transforming war and its tools into instruments of peace is deeply embedded in Jewish tradition. So is the quest for peace. The Bible is strewn with this quest for peace and its exaltation. I’ll mention just a few instances:

“The Lord lift up his countenance upon thee, and give thee peace” Numbers 6/26

“Then Gideon built an altar there unto the Lord, and called it Jehova-shalom” Judges 6/24

“ how beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace”Isaiah 52/7

“ Seek peace, and pursue it” Psalms 34/14

“The mountains shall bring peace to the people ,and the little hills, by righteousness” Psalm 72/3

“He makes peace in His High places” Job 25/2

The activity described here builds upon the nation’s longings for peace,and for a day when tools of war won’t be needed anymore.

<underline>Unleashing inner creativity

</underline>The idea of transforming weaponry into useful tools and objects was well accepted<italic> </italic>by the children in the two 4th grades. They readily went on working on their assignment.

The childlike creativity which isn’t marred by fixed patterns gushed out.

Instruments of war can and should be transformed into tools benefiting people instead of wounding and killing them.

Lets only hope that their wishes as well as ours will come true.

The human wish to transform the bad into good, is very old as described in Isiah: <italic>“ And they’ll beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into prunninghooks : nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more.”

</italic>How does one get to transform things? One tool that might help us in our attempts to do that is the tool of creative thinking. Creative thinking is first and foremost an attitude that challenges conventional axioms.

Creative thinking knows no limitations, is optimistic and builds on the future and not on the past. These characteristics make CT the right tool to use when trying to suggest new ways to cope with a very difficult situation. In the grim, harsh reality forced upon us in the Middle East, this activity, though a simple, unpresumptuous one, is of the utmost importance. Its significance lies in its giving the children tools for dealing with the seemingly hopeless reality.

Lets pray that these youngsters will have the good fortune of implementing the fruits of their Memorial Day activity.

<underline>An end note

</underline>I want to believe that out there there are some Palestinian colleagues who are working with their students in the same direction.<italic>

</italic>It’s these educators amongst us Israelis and amongst the Palestinians who will make peace a reality.

Nurturing the mind and soul from a very early age with non- violent activities and with creative means<italic> </italic>that never fail to open up new avenues , will help us all to pave a highway for peace and understanding.



Pr. Edna Aphek

Tel / Fax - 97225665902


- Number of gun owners in the USA: 80,000,000

- Number of accidental gun deaths per year (all age groups): 1,500

- Accidental deaths per gun owner: 0.0000188

- Number of physicians in the USA: 700,000

- Accidental deaths caused by physicians per year: 120,000

- Accidental deaths per physician: 0.171

Statistically, doctors are approximately 9,000 times more dangerous than gun owners.

Fact: Not everyone has a gun, but sooner or later everyone has a doctor.



The following list of phrases and their definitions might help you understand the mysterious language of science and medicine. These special phrases are also applicable to anyone reading a PhD dissertation or academic paper.

"IT HAS LONG BEEN KNOWN"...I didn't look up the original reference.

"A DEFINITE TREND IS EVIDENT"...These data are practically meaningless.


TO THE QUESTIONS"...An unsuccessful experiment but I still hope to get it published.

"THREE OF THE SAMPLES WERE CHOSEN FOR DETAILED STUDY"...The other results didn't make any sense.

"TYPICAL RESULTS ARE SHOWN"...This is the prettiest graph.

"THESE RESULTS WILL BE IN A SUBSEQUENT REPORT"...I might get around to this sometime, if pushed/funded.





"IT IS GENERALLY BELIEVED THAT"...A couple of others think so, too.




"A CAREFUL ANALYSIS OF OBTAINABLE DATA"...Three pages of notes were obliterated when I knocked over a glass iced tea.


"AFTER ADDITIONAL STUDY BY MY COLLEAGUES"...They don't understand it either.


"A HIGHLY SIGNIFICANT AREA FOR EXPLORATORY STUDY"...A totally useless topic selected by my committee.


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